1 the occurrence of two or more things coming together
2 the approach of an infinite series to a finite limit [syn: convergency] [ant: divergence, divergence]
3 a representation of common ground between theories or phenomena; "there was no overlap between their proposals" [syn: overlap, intersection]
- the act of moving toward union or uniformity.
- a meeting
- We built a homestead at the convergence of two rivers
- the intersection of three electron beams for red, green and blue onto a single pixel in a CRT
- the process of approaching some limiting value
- the coordinated focusing of the eyes, especially at short range
- the evolution of similar structures or traits in unrelated species in similar environments; convergent evolution
- the merging of distinct technologies, industries, or devices into a unified whole (ex AT&T buying out every other company to have a monopoly as they did in the 1980's and have succeeded into doing once more after the recent purchase of cingular.)
a meeting place
the intersection of three electron beams
In the absence of a more specific context, convergence denotes the approach toward a definite value, as time goes on; or to a definite point, a common view or opinion, or toward a fixed or equilibrium state. Convergent is the adjectival form, and also a noun meaning an iterative approximation.
MathematicsIn mathematics, convergence describes limiting behaviour, particularly of an infinite sequence or series, toward some limit. To assert convergence is to claim the existence of such a limit, which may be itself unknown. For any fixed standard of accuracy, however, you can always be sure to be within that limit, provided you have gone far enough. The following lists more specific usages of this word:
- Convergent sequence, a sequence which has a limit, see limit of a sequence.
- Convergent series, a sequence of which the partial sums have a limit.
- Convergent of a (possibly infinite) continued fraction.
- Convergent net - a generalization of a convergent sequence.
- Convergent filter - a generalization of a convergent net.
- Integral test for convergence is a technique used to test infinite series of nonnegative terms for convergence.
- Radius of convergence pertains to a domain interval over which a power series converges.
- Uniform convergence pertains to pointwise convergence where the speed of convergence is independent of any value in the domain.
- Monotone convergence theorem pertains to any one of several such theorems defined over a monotone sequence of numbers.
- Convergence of random variables pertains to any one of several notions of convergence in probability theory.
- Rate of convergence pertains to the “speed” at which a convergent sequence approaches its limit.
- Absolute convergence pertains to whether the absolute value of the limit of a series or integral is finite.
- Pointwise convergence is the convergence of functions' values at each specific input individually.
- Gromov-Hausdorff convergence pertains to metric spaces and is a generalization of Hausdorff distance.
- Convergence of Fourier series pertains to whether the Fourier series of a periodic function converges. Also known as classic harmonic analysis.
- Dominated convergence theorem pertains to a theorem by Henri Lebesgue.
- Convergence of a numerical method for solving differential equations.
The opposite of convergence is divergence. Divergence may be some kind of oscillation, unrestricted growth (recognised as the case of an infinite limit), or chaotic behavior. An infinite series that is divergent cannot be used for meaningful computations of its value. Nevertheless, divergent series can be summed formally, as generating functions or asymptotic series, or via some summation method.
- Convergent evolution pertains to organisms not closely related that independently acquire similar characteristics while evolving in separate and sometimes varying ecosystems.
- Convergent synthesis is a strategy that aims to improve the efficiency of multi-step chemical synthesis.
- Convergent boundary is a fault boundary defined in the specialty of geology known as plate tectonics.
- Convergence zone in meteorology is an area where the horizontal wind produces a net in-flow of air
- Convergence is the simultaneous inward movement of both eyes toward each other, usually in an effort to maintain single binocular vision when viewing an object.
Computing and technology
- Technological convergence refers to a trend where some technologies having distinct functionalities evolve to technologies that overlap, i.e. multiple products come together to form one product, with the advantages of each initial component.
- Convergence (evolutionary computing) is a means of modeling the tendency for genetic characteristics of populations to stabilize over time.
- Premature convergence is an anomaly in evolutionary computation in which the population evolved to some stable yet sub-optimal state.
- Language convergence pertains to the blending of two languages that are perceived as having equal social status. Opposite of Non-convergent discourse.
- Non-convergent discourse pertains to the persistence of asymmetric or bilingual discourse in natural languages.
- Catch-up effect is otherwise known as the theory of convergence in economic theory.
- Convergence criteria are requirements specified by the European Union that stipulate the membership qualifications each state must fulfill.
- Media convergence refers to the removal of entry barriers across the IT, telecoms, media and consumer electronics industries, creating one large 'converged' industry.
- Telecommunication convergence is a marketing concept with heavy technological implications, referring to the bundling of services by telecoms players, both in terms of the product portfolio they offer (vertical convergence), and of the channels through which their products are sold and serviced (horizontal convergence).
convergence in Bulgarian: Конвергенция
convergence in Czech: Konvergence
convergence in German: Konvergenz
convergence in French: Convergence
convergence in Italian: Convergenza
convergence in Hebrew: התכנסות
convergence in Georgian: კრებადობა
convergence in Hungarian: Konvergencia
convergence in Dutch: Convergentie (wiskunde)
convergence in Norwegian: Konvergens
convergence in Polish: Zbieżność
convergence in Russian: Конвергенция
convergence in Serbian: Конвергенција
convergence in Finnish: Konvergenssi